Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia

Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is caused by a monoclonal proliferation of well-differentiated lymphocytes which are almost always B-cells (99%)

often none
constitutional: anorexia, weight loss
bleeding, infections
lymphadenopathy more marked than CML

hypogammaglobulinaemia leading to recurrent infections
warm autoimmune haemolytic anaemia in 10-15% of patients
transformation to high-grade lymphoma (Richter's transformation)

Blood film: smudge cells (also known as smear cells)
immunophenotyping - CD19, and often CD5 and CD23

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